Install MySQL Server on the Ubuntu operating system

MySQL is an open-source relational database that is free and widely used. It is
a good choice if you know that you need a database but don't know much about
all the available options.

This article describes a basic installation of a MySQL database server on
the Ubuntu operating system. You might need to install other packages to let
applications use MySQL, like extensions for PHP. Check your application
documentation for details.

Install MySQL

Install the MySQL server by using the Ubuntu operating system package manager:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install mysql-server

The installer installs MySQL and all dependencies.

If the secure installation utility does not launch automatically after the
installation completes, enter the following command:

sudo mysql_secure_installation utility

This utility prompts you to define the mysql root password
and other security-related options, including removing remote access
to the root user and setting the root password.

Allow remote access

If you have iptables enabled and want to connect to the MySQL database from
another machine, you must open a port in your server's firewall (the default
port is 3306). You don't need to do this if the application that uses MySQL
is running on the same server.

Run the following command to allow remote access to the mysql server:

sudo ufw enable
sudo ufw allow mysql

Start the MySQL service

After the installation is complete, you can start the database service by
running the following command. If the service is already started, a message
informs you that the service is already running:

sudo systemctl start mysql

Launch at reboot

To ensure that the database server launches after a reboot, run the following

sudo systemctl enable mysql

Configure interfaces

MySQL, by default is no longer bound to ( listening on ) any remotely accessible interfaces.
Edit the "bind-address" directive in /etc/mysql/mysql.conf.d/mysqld.cnf:

bind-address		= ( The default. )
bind-address		= XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX ( The ip address of your Public Net interface. )
bind-address		= ZZZ.ZZZ.ZZZ.ZZZ ( The ip address of your Service Net interface. )
bind-address		= ( All ip addresses. )

Restart the mysql service.

sudo systemctl restart mysql

Start the mysql shell

There is more than one way to work with a MySQL server, but this article
focuses on the most basic and compatible approach, the mysql shell.

  1. At the command prompt, run the following command to launch the mysql
    shell and enter it as the root user:

    /usr/bin/mysql -u root -p
  2. When you're prompted for a password, enter the one that you set at
    installation time, or if you haven't set one, press Enter to submit no

    The following mysql shell prompt should appear:


Set the root password

If you logged in by entering a blank password, or if you want to change the root
password that you set, you can create or change the password.

  1. For versions earlier than MySQL 5.7, enter the following command in the mysql shell, replace password with
    your new password:

    UPDATE mysql.user SET Password = PASSWORD('password') WHERE User = 'root';

    For version MySQL 5.7 and later, enter the following command in the mysql shell, replacing password with
    your new password:

    UPDATE mysql.user SET authentication_string = PASSWORD('password') WHERE User = 'root';
  2. To make the change take effect, reload the stored user information with the following command:


    Note: We're using all-caps for SQL commands. If you type those
    commands in lowercase, they'll work. By convention, the commands are
    written in all-caps to make them stand out from field names and other
    data that's being manipulated.

If you need to reset the root password later, see Reset a MySQL root password.

View users

MySQL stores the user information in its own database. The name of the database
is mysql. Inside that database the user information is in a table, a
dataset, named user. If you want to see what users are set up in the MySQL
user table, run the following command:

SELECT User, Host, authentication_string FROM mysql.user;

The following list describes the parts of that command:

  • SELECT tells MySQL that you are asking for data.
  • User, Host, authentication_string tells MySQL what fields you want it to
    look in. Fields are categories for the data in a table. In this case, you
    are looking for the username, the host associated with the username, and
    the encrypted password entry.
  • FROM mysql.user " tells MySQL to get the data from the mysql
    database and the user table.
  • A semicolon (;) ends the command.

Note: All SQL queries end in a semicolon. MySQL does not process a query
until you type a semicolon.

User hosts

The following example is the output for the preceding query:

SELECT User, Host, authentication_string FROM mysql.user;
| User             | Host      | authentication_string                     |
| root             | localhost | *756FEC25AC0E1823C9838EE1A9A6730A20ACDA21 |
| debian-sys-maint | localhost | *27E7CA2445405AB10C656AFD0F86AF76CCC57692 |

Users are associated with a host, specifically, the host from which they connect.
The root user in this example is defined for localhost, for the IP address
of localhost, and the hostname of the server.
You usually need to set a user for only one host, the one from which you
typically connect.

If you're running your application on the same computer as the MySQL
server, the host that it connects to by default is localhost. Any new
users that you create must have localhost in their host field.

If your application connects remotely, the host entry that MySQL looks for
is the IP address or DNS hostname of the remote computer (the one from which
the client is coming).

Anonymous users

In the example output, one entry has a host value but no username or password.
That's an anonymous user. When a client connects with no username specified,
it's trying to connect as an anonymous user.

You usually don't want any anonymous users, but some MySQL installations
include one by default. If you see one, you should either delete the user
(refer to the username with empty quotes, like ' ') or set a password for it.

Create a database

There is a difference between a database server and a database, even though
those terms are often used interchangeably. MySQL is a database server, meaning it
tracks databases and controls access to them. The database stores the data, and
it is the database that applications are trying to access when they interact
with MySQL.

Some applications create a database as part of their setup process, but others
require you to create a database yourself and tell the
application about it.

To create a database, log in to the mysql shell and run the following command,
replacing demodb with the name of the database that you want to create:


After the database is created, you can verify its creation by running a query to
list all databases. The following example shows the query and example output:

| Database           |
| information_schema |
| demodb             |
| mysql              |
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Add a database user

When applications connect to the database using the root user, they usually have more privileges than they need. You can add users that applications can use to connect to the new database. In the following example, a user named demouser is created.

  1. To create a new user, run the following command in the mysql shell:

    INSERT INTO mysql.user (User,Host,authentication_string,ssl_cipher,x509_issuer,x509_subject)

  2. When you make changes to the user table in the mysql database, tell
    MySQL to read the changes by flushing the privileges, as follows:

  3. Verify that the user was created by running a SELECT query again:

    SELECT User, Host, authentication_string FROM mysql.user;

    | User | Host | Password |
    | root | localhost | 756FEC25AC0E1823C9838EE1A9A6730A20ACDA21 |
    | mysql.session | localhost |
    | debian-sys-maint | localhost |
    27E7CA2445405AB10C656AFD0F86AF76CCC57692 |
    | demouser | localhost | *0756A562377EDF6ED3AC45A00B356AAE6D3C6BB6 |

Grant database user permissions

Right after you create a new user, it has no privileges. The user can log in,
but can't be used to make any database changes.

  1. Give the user full permissions for your new database by running the
    following command:

    GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON demodb.* to demouser@localhost;
  2. Flush the privileges to make the change official by running the following

  3. To verify that those privileges are set, run the following command:

    SHOW GRANTS FOR 'demouser'@'localhost';
    2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

    MySQL returns the commands needed to reproduce that user's permissions if
    you were to rebuild the server. USAGE on \*.\* means the users
    gets no privileges on anything by default. That command is overridden by the
    second command, which is the grant you ran for the new database.

    | Grants for demouser@localhost                                                                                   |
    | GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'demouser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*0756A562377EDF6ED3AC45A00B356AAE6D3C6BB6' |
    | GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `demodb`.* TO 'demouser'@'localhost'                                                    |
    2 rows in set (0.00 sec)


If you're just creating a database and a user, you are done. The concepts
covered here should give you a solid start from which to learn more.

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