Generate a CSR with OpenSSL

This article shows how to create a certificate signing request (CSR) for an SSL
certificate, whether it's a traditional SSL from an authority like Verisign, a
self-signed certificate, or the '*' Wildcard certificate. Most of the information is
taken from RapidSSL's support documentation.

The Rackspace Cloud is not a certificate authority (and does not resell SSL certificates),
so you need to go to a third party solution,such as RapidSSL, to purchase a certificate
using the CSR that you create here.

Note: You can also generate a CSR and private key by using a
feature in the Cloud Control Panel. For more
information, see Create a CSR in the Cloud Control Panel.

Install OpenSSL

You must install OpenSSL on your server. This is a common package and is
available on all of the major Linux distributions through their package installers.

To check whether it is installed on a system that uses yum (such as CentOS or Red Hat
Enterprise Linux), run the following command.

rpm -qa | grep -i openssl

The preceding command should return the following or similar packages:


If these packages are not returned, install OpenSSL by running the following command:

yum install openssl openssl-devel

To check whether OpenSSL is installed in a Debian or Ubuntu operating system, run the following

dpkg -l |grep openssl

You should receive the following output.

ii  libgnutls-openssl27:amd64           2.12.23-12ubuntu2.4              amd64        GNU TLS library - OpenSSL wrapper
ii  openssl                             1.0.1f-1ubuntu2.16               amd64        Secure Sockets Layer toolkit - cryptographic utility

If you don't see the expected output, install OpenSSL, run the following command:

apt-get install openssl

Generate the RSA key

Run the following commands to create a directory in which to store your RSA key,
substituting a directory name of your choice:

mkdir ~/
cd ~/

Run the following command to generate a private key:

openssl genrsa -out ~/ 2048

Create a CSR

Type the following command to create a CSR with the RSA private key
(output is in PEM format):

openssl req -new -sha256 -key ~/ -out ~/

When prompted, enter the necessary information for creating a CSR by using the conventions
shown in the following table.

Note: The following characters cannot be used in the Organization Name or the
Organizational Unit: < > ~ ! @ # $ % ^ * / \ ( ) ?.,&

DN fieldExplanationExample
Common NameThe fully qualified domain name for your web server. This must be an exact match.If you intend to secure the URL, then your CSR's common name must be If you plan to get a wildcard certificate, make sure to prefix your domain name with an asterisk, for example: *
Organization NameThe exact legal name of your organization. Do not abbreviate your organization
Organizational UnitSection of the organization.IT
City or LocalityThe city where your organization is legally located.Wellesley Hills
State or ProvinceThe state or province where your organization is legally located. Do not use an abbreviation.Massachusetts
CountryThe two-letter ISO abbreviation for your country.US

Warning: Leave the challenge password blank (press Enter).

Verify your CSR

Run the following command to verify your CSR:

openssl req -noout -text -in ~/

Submit your CSR

Submit the CSR that you created to a certificate authority. We recommend
Verisign, Thawte and RapidSSL, but there are other certificate authorities that
you can choose to use.

Next section - Install an SSL certificate on Apache