Operating system and architecture#

Get answers to common technical questions about the operating system and architecture for Rackspace Private Cloud Powered By OpenStack (RPCO) 17.1.

What host operating system does RPCO |release| use?

RPCO 17.1 uses and has been tested on Ubuntu 16.04.4 or later. RPCO uses this version of the Ubuntu operating system because of its compatibility with Linux Containers (LXC), Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN), and LinuxBridge.

What is the recommended minimum number of hosts, and what does each host contain?

The recommended minimum number of hosts is five total: four Infrastructure and one Compute, although most production deployments will have many Compute hosts. Using Block Storage will require an additional host. RPCO also requires a hardware load balancer.

  • Infrastructure hosts represent both scalable Control Plane hosts and a Logging host. Control Plane hosts contain all of the OpenStack APIs and service requirements such as Galera and RabbitMQ. Logging hosts contain Kibana, ElasticSearch, Rsyslog, and Logstash.

  • Compute hosts contain nova-compute and the neutron-linuxbridge-agent dependent package.

  • Storage hosts contain the cinder volume and scheduler services.

Infrastructure nodes can also contain the database services and act as database nodes.

Host Layout Overview

How is node scaling accomplished?

Ansible playbooks make scaling a node a relatively simple process:

  1. Build a new node with Ubuntu 16.04.4 or later.

  2. Add the node to the hosts group in the rpc_user_config.yml file.

  3. Run the required playbooks to assign the necessary roles to the node.

** What are the scaling relationships between the services? Do some services need to be scaled together?**

The neutron-linuxbridge-agent service scales out with the Compute containers. Otherwise, services do not need to be scaled together.

Do any of the services have scaling limits?

There is no known limit.

What is the maximum number of each service that can be deployed within a single environment?

There is no known maximum. However, each node should have only one nova-compute and one cinder-volume container. Neutron services with a strong relationship to other services are limited by those other services. For example, because the neutron-linuxbridge-agent is associated with nova-compute, each node has one of those agents.

RPCO 17.1 is based on the OpenStack Queens release. By default, OSA deploys cinder-volumes on physical hosts (is_metal: true parameter) instead of in a container. Users must migrate their volumes if cinder backups switch to physical hosts from containers. For more information, see the cinder-migrate section in the RPCO upgrade guide.

What advantages does Ansible provide as a deployment method over Chef?

Although Chef is a useful deployment method in many circumstances, the Ansible automation framework excels at deploying the RPCO container-based architecture and managing source code across multiple hosts. In addition, Ansible does not require any agents and is resource efficient, and the configuration methodology is easy to understand. The OpenStack-Ansible deployment process has become the reference Ansible deployment model for OpenStack.

What advantages does LXC provide in the context of OpenStack deployment?

LXC is stable and well-supported. Containers enable separation of host management from OpenStack management, and enable management of individual OpenStack components and configuration files.

Does RPCO support Telemetry service (ceilometer)?

At this time, RPCO does not support the Telemetry service because of stability, scalability, and performance issues.

What options do customers have for the Image service (glance) in a customer data center?

To use the Image service in their own data centers, customers have the following options:

  • Provide Rackspace with an NFS mount point.

  • Add the Object Storage (swift) service to act as the Image Storage back end.

  • Create a Ceph object store.

What options do customers have for the Image service (glance) in a Rackspace data center?

To use the Image service in a Rackspace data center, customers have the following options:

  • Use Cloud Files. Note that a Cloud Files back end may experience additional latency when retrieving or storing images, depending on the customer’s location.

  • Use Red Hat Cluster Suite (RHCS) NFS.

  • Add the Object Storage (swift) service to act as the Image service back end.

  • Create a Ceph object store.

Can I list the instances that are backed by a given image in the Image service?

No, there are no native tools to do this. However, RPCO support created the image_check.py utility script that traverses all active instances and checks for deleted, orphaned, or mismatched images. The script works for all versions of RPCO. Run the script from the utility container. In RPCO 17.1, SQL query access to the database on the Galera container is restricted to local queries. Therefore, for RPCO 17.1 run image_check.py from within the Galera container.

To create the script, paste the following text into image_check.py and mark the file as executable:

#!/bin/env python
import argparse
import MySQLdb
import ConfigParser
import traceback
import sys
import os

def mycnf(f=os.environ['HOME'] + '/.my.cnf'):
    config = ConfigParser.ConfigParser()
        user = config.get('client','user')
        password = config.get('client','password')
        print '!! Unable to read mysql credentials from %s' % f

     return {'user':user, 'password':password}

 def myquery(query, database):
     cred = mycnf()
     db = MySQLdb.connect(user=cred['user'], passwd=cred['password'], db=database)
     c = db.cursor()
     results = c.fetchall()

     return results

 def get_instances():
     i = myquery("SELECT uuid,hostname,image_ref FROM instances WHERE deleted=0", 'nova')
     instances = {}
     for z in i:
         uuid, hostname, image_ref = z
         instances[uuid] = {'hostname':hostname, 'image_ref': image_ref}

     return instances

 def get_images():
     i = myquery("SELECT id,name, deleted FROM images", 'glance')
     images = {}
     for z in i:
         id, name, deleted = z
         deleted = int(deleted)
         images[id] = {'name':name, 'deleted':deleted}

     return images

 def get_images_ondisk(path='/var/lib/glance/images'):
     file_list = []
     for dirpath, dirnames, files in os.walk(path):
         for name in files:

     return (path, file_list)

 instances = get_instances()
 images = get_images()
 images_ondisk = get_images_ondisk()

 missing_images = []
 unused_images = []
 zombie_images = []

 parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
 parser.add_argument('--all', help='Show all types of images', action="store_true")
 parser.add_argument('--missing', help='Check for missing backing images', action="store_true")
 parser.add_argument('--unused', help='Check unused images', action="store_true")
 parser.add_argument('--zombie', help='Check images marked as deleted but on disk', action="store_true")
 parser.add_argument('--ignore', help='Used with --zombie to ignore images still in use', action="store_true")
 parser.add_argument('--verbose', help='Print detailed list of images', action="store_true")
 parser.add_argument('--technical', help='Print only uuids', action="store_true")
 args = parser.parse_args()

 Check for missing backing images

 for i in instances:
         if not images[ instances[i]['image_ref'] ]['deleted'] == 0:
             if args.verbose and args.missing or args.all:
                 print "%s:%s does not have a backing image - %s" % (instances[i]['hostname'], i, instances[i]['image_ref'])

 Check for images marked as deleted in DB, but still on disk

 if args.zombie or args.all:
     for uuid in images_ondisk[1]:
         q = "SELECT name, status FROM images WHERE id='%s'" % uuid
         result = myquery(q, "glance")
         name, status = result[0]
         if status == 'deleted':
             if args.verbose:
                 print "%s:%s is marked as deleted, but found on disk" % (name, uuid)
             if not args.ignore:
                 q = "SELECT uuid from nova.instances as n join glance.images as g on \
                      g.id = n.image_ref where g.deleted='1' and n.deleted='0' and g.id='%s'" % uuid
                 result = myquery(q, "nova")
                 if not result:

 List of unused images
 if args.unused or args.all:
     for image in images:
         inuse = False
             for i in instances:
                 if image == instances[i]['image_ref']:
                     inuse = True

         if not inuse and images[image]['deleted'] == 0:
             if args.verbose:
                 print '%s:%s is NOT in use by instances' % (images[image]['name'], image)

 if args.verbose:
     print 'Summary:\n\t%i images\n\t%i instances\n\t%i instances missing backing image\
            \n\t%i unused images\n\t%i marked as deleted but on disk' \
            % (len(images), len(instances), len(missing_images), len(unused_images), len(zombie_images))
 if args.technical:
     if args.missing:
         print '#missing'
         for i in missing_images:
             print i
     if args.unused:
         print '#unused'
         for i in unused_images:
             print i
     if args.zombie:
         print '#zombie'
         for i in zombie_images:
             print i

Alternatively, use the following database queries to list out all active instances by ID, then obtain the backing image for each instance:

use database nova;
SELECT uuid,hostname,image_ref FROM instances WHERE deleted=0";

use database glance;
SELECT id,name, deleted FROM images";

Can I find out which glance image my server instance depends on?

Yes. There are two methods:

  • In the Horizon dashboard, in the Instances tab, click Details for a

    specific instance.

  • From the API command line client, run the following command:

    $ nova show | grep image
    $ openstack server show | grep image

    The expected output contains the name and hexadecimal ID of the glance backing image.

How do I determine if a specific commit for a bug is running in an upstream OpenStack Installation?

To determine if a given commit appears in an upstream installation, or a .whl archive deployed upstream, use the SHA identifier of the specific commit and the SHA identifier of the target installation. Find and confirm the commit SHA, and then compare it to the upstream installation SHA history, as follows:

  1. Record the SHA of the commit, which is 9ff5bb967105451a1c3c1a6dbeb0ec979afaeb in this example.

  2. Log into the container where the OpenStack service resides. This example retrieves information about neutron:

    # lxc-attach -n aio1_neutron_agents_container28d6792d
    # pbr info neutron
    neutron 2015.2.4dev9   pre-release 1fafe42

    The seven character entry that appears last on the line is the SHA of the commit used to build neutron in this OpenStack installation.

  3. Confirm whether the SHA in question appears inside the upstream OpenStack installation. On any Linux installation, clone the upstream repository and examine the commit history:

    # git clone https://github.com/openstack/neutron.git
    # cd neutron
  4. Search the cloned repository for the SHA identifier, referencing the OpenStack service SHA:

    # git rev-list 1fafe42 | grep 9ff5bb967105451a1c3c1a6dbeb0ec979afaeb

    The git rev-list command lists all ancestor commits of the commit object 1fafe42 in this git repository, and the | grep <SHA> option searches for the commit SHA.Replace 1fafe42 with the SHA obtained from the pbr info command, and 9ff5bb967105451a1c3c1a6dbeb0ec979afaeb with the specific commit SHA. If the command returns the commit SHA, the OpenStack installation contains the commit:

    # git rev-list 1fafe42 | grep 9ff5bb967105451a1c3c1a6dbeb0ec979afaeb

How do I recover from an Infrastructure node loss, and reattach the node to the cluster?

A manual procedure resets and reattaches the service or cluster inside the Infrastructure node. In the following example, the procedure restores a RabbitMQ cluster to the infrastructure nodes following a service failure.

  1. Log in to the infra3 node, and stop the RabbitMQ service as the root user:

    # rabbitmqctl stop_app
  2. Log in to the infra1 node in a separate console instance, and remove the infra3 configuration from the node:

    # rabbitmqctl forget_cluster_node infra3
  3. Reattach the RabbitMQ configuration to the infra1 node:

    # rabbitmqctl join_cluster rabbit@infra1
  4. Start the RabbitMQ service on the infra1 node:

    # rabbitmqctl start_app
  5. Check on the status of the RabbitMQ service:

    # rabbitmqctl cluster_status
  6. Stop and restart the RabbitMQ service on each of the infrastructure nodes, infra1, infra2, and infra3 , as follows:

    # service rabbitmq-server stop
    # service rabbitmq-server start