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“What tools do you use for visualization?" You often hear this question in deep learning and reinforcement learning (RL), which is even more common among those beginning to gain interest and run experiments.
Especially in the domain of video games, it is crucial to visualize an agent’s performance in several ways to truly gain a full picture of how it behaves in its environment. Before anything else, you need a tool to log important metrics such as episode rewards and loss. My choice is Weights & Biases (W&B). It is extremely easy to use if you’re using PyTorch®, TensorFlow®, or fast.ai, and I find it much more visually pleasing than Tensorboard.
To demonstrate the importance of logging metrics and visualization, let’s use an implementation of Bootstrapped DQN by Johanna Hansen.
This implementation is based upon the paper “Deep Exploration via bootstrapped DQN” by Osband et al. and their follow-up paper, which adds a randomized prior. Additionally, this implementation is ready for use with Arcade Learning Environment (ALE), a common benchmark in RL research. With just a few added code lines to the run_bootstrap file of the cloned repository, you can log desired metrics, hyperparameters, system performance, and more with W&B. Now, I can see training results update in real-time, compare metrics, create custom charts, and even compare and create charts of runs from different people if it’s a team project. Because rewards are a critical component of RL algorithms, here are some simple run comparisons for episode reward results:
These charts compare episode rewards based on maximum episode step increases of bootstrapped
DQN on Atari® Atlantis. You can easily reproduce similar results by going into the
run_bootstrap.py file and changing the value of
MAX_EPISODE_STEPS on line 369. Your
chart would update as such automatically if all three runs are in the same project within
Essentially, many RL algorithms on Atlantis will reach a point where the agent can play episodes without ever dying in the game. Therefore, these episodes end by reaching the maximum episode step limit imposed in the code. You can see this reflected in the episode step charts of each run. Some have even argued for doing away with the max episode step count entirely for RL work on Atari, which I do not have the resources to do. However, the 600,000 step maximum here is sufficient to show that superhuman performance is possible in this particular game. You can view all metrics and more for these runs at https://wandb.ai/bragajj/bootstrap-dqn-ale.
Already, we have visualization results that are easily customizable and (in my own opinion) more aesthetically appealing than the Matplotlib files generated with the implementation during training by default, seen in the following image:
But unfortunately, metric charts do not always capture all of the pertinent information about an RL agent. Let’s look at the episode reward chart for Bank Heist (Atari) with the same Bootstrap DQN implementation:
From this chart updating, you might infer that the agent is learning the game normally as episode reward increases. But without recording any gameplay during training, it’s easy to overlook an important characteristic of how the agent plays the game.
As you can observe in this Bank Heist video, the agent is repeating a set of actions, grabbing one bonus over and over until the car runs out of gas. This strategy to mine one reward endlessly might result in a better overall score than early algorithms on the same game. However, the episode reward charts and loss charts alone do not easily indicate that the agent is playing repeating this sub-optimal policy and does not ever make use of the gas it could replenish to ultimately score more over time. Note how quickly we were able to make this observation with the aid of the video recording.
Thus, quantitative metrics alone can be insufficient to perceive certain attributes of RL agents in games. After all, if the chosen field of research is games, we must note how players relate to them. Esports fans and competitors aren’t happy in knowing who won a match. They want to see the players compete head-to-head. DeepMind, probably the most recognizable name in RL research, knows this quite well.
AlphaGo and AlphaStar’s matches against human competitors were not just results appended to an academic paper—they were highly recorded and publicized endeavors. As humans who play games, we want to see how a player plays a game, not just how they scored overall. So if you’re performing RL research or experiments: I beg you to record gameplay. During evaluations or after a certain fixed number of episodes, capture a video of your agent. You’ll thank yourself later, and if you choose to make this footage available to the public, the community will thank you as well.
This is why I’m happy to have contributed runs to CleanRL’s benchmark, an open-source project implementing deep reinforcement learning algorithms on a range of tasks including Atari, PyBullet, and more. Transparency, reproducibility, and visualization are the focus of the project. Going even further, the algorithms are implemented as a single file implementation. You can easily click https://github.com/vwxyzjn/cleanrl to check out the Get Started portion of the ReadMe and start running RL experiments of your own.
Not only are all of CleanRL’s metrics and gameplay videos available for the public to see, but you can also look through the code and all requirements and dependency versions used in each run. Because W&B hosts the benchmark, you can also easily see CPU and GPU usage statistics and the graphics card used on each run. Every month, the team meets to implement new RL algorithms and run experiments. Consequently, you might even see new runs, video recordings, and metrics updating in real-time several times a month.
With the help of Rackspace, I’ve added 41 reinforcement learning runs to CleanRL’s benchmark on Atari games like Ms. Pacman, Yars Revenge, Frostbite, Tennis, and more. You can view all results and gameplay videos at https://wandb.ai/cleanrl/cleanrl.benchmark.
The CleanRL implementations take visualization one step further than I’ve mentioned thus far. You might notice the repository includes a file called dqn_atari_visual.py in addition to dqn_atari.py. If you take a look at the code of dqn_atari_visual.py at line 381, you see the foundation of another addition in the form of an Open AI gym wrapper:
With most of the work done in roughly thirty lines of code, this adds a powerful additional level of visualization beyond merely recording gameplay. You can now see the q values relating to the action selection process updating compared to actions available to the agent as the gameplay ensues. On the C51 and PPO implementations, this changes slightly as well based upon the algorithm. These can serve as useful templates and starting points for writing your own additional visual aids within OpenAI gym. Here are two examples of the recordings from my own runs on the early Activision games Freeway and Tennis:
Let’s take a look at my results to see how four of the algorithms offered with CleanRL compared on three games: Ms. Pacman, Yars Revenge, and Gopher. These runs are officially part of the project benchmark now.
In the Ms. Pacman runs, DQN, PPO, and Apex-DQN all perform pretty similarly by the end of training, but C51 finishes 10 million steps with the best results. If you watch the videos captured in the benchmark, you can see many of the agents having a tough time getting caught on corners in the maze or repeating a path back and forth, expecting a reward. In later videos, C51 completes the first level smoothly.
On Yars Revenge, there is a gigantic score increase on PPO compared to the other algorithms. While DQN does beat out Apex-DQN and C51, PPO easily outdoes the competition here around the halfway mark of training. I expected Apex-DQN to do better here.
Finally, in Gopher, we have a much clearer distinction between the performance of all four algorithms, with C51 performing at the highest level of the four again. You can view video for any of the runs by heading to https://wandb.ai/cleanrl/cleanrl.benchmark, searching a game, and looking at the media tab.
C51 and DQN were by far the most resource-intensive algorithms to run of this group, with C51 taking the most time to finish training. Considering the setup and overall resources needed to run each algorithm, PPO offers serious performance compared to C51 and DQN. Right now, the team is working on implementing conservative q-learning for offline DQN. With the number of academic papers recently featured at major conferences relating to RL and Game AI, there is always more work to be done and made open source. Feel free to join us on Slack to discuss reinforcement learning!
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