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Introduction to transport layer security

This blog introduces transport layer security (TLS) and explains how it differs from secure socket layer (SSL). It also includes essential step-by-step instructions to enable TLS in OracleĀ® E-Business SuiteĀ® (EBS) R12.

What is TLS?

TLS is an upgraded version of SSL and provides secure communications between the client and server. Because TLS uses a symmetric cryptography algorithm to encrypt the data, the data transfer is more secure and stable than the transfer is by using SSL.

Why to use TLS with EBS?

As you likely know, EBS uses inbound, outbound, and loopback connections and shares business critical information with EBS users. Thus, more chances of data theft, data tampering, and message forgery are possible. However, by enabling TLS with EBS, you can avoid all of these problems.

The following image illustrates the connection flow in EBS:

Image source: Enabling TLS in Oracle E-Business Suite Release 12.1 (Doc ID 376700.1)

Implement TLS with EBS

Perform the following tasks to enable TLS with EBS:

  • Upgrade the Java Development Kit (JDKĀ®) and Web Home.
  • Apply mandatory patches.
  • Configure OpenSSLĀ®.
  • Generate a .csr file.
  • Get the certified .csr file from a certificate authority (CA).
  • Download and import the certificates into EBS.
  • Make configuration changes.
  • Run AutoConfig.
  • Verify the URL.

1. Upgrade JDK and Web Home

Upgrade to JDK 7 or above, and upgrade Web Home to version

2. Apply mandatory patches

Install the following patches (or the most recently released patch):

  • Oracle Opatch (6880880)
  • Oracle Critical Patch Updates (CPU)
  • Oracle HTTP Server (OHS) (27078378)
  • Oracle Process Manager and Notification Server (OPMN) (27208670)
  • EBS (22724663, 22922530, and 22974534)

3. Configure OpenSSL

Create an OpenSSL configuration file by executing the following commands:

cd $INST_TOP/certs/Apache
mkdir WildcardCert
cd $INST_TOP/certs/Apache/WildcardCert

Create the following new.cnf file to use as a response file for OpenSSL:

cat new.cnf
prompt = no
default_md = sha256
distinguished_name = dn
req_extensions = ext
CN = *.
O = Aspen Technology Inc
L = Bedford
ST = Masachett
C = US
subjectAltName = DNS:*.

4. Generate a .csr file

Use the following steps to generate a .csr file:

  1. Run the following command to generate .csr file:

     $ openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout server.key -sha256 -out new.csr -config new.cnf
      Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key
      writing new private key to 'server.key'
  2. Verify the .csr on

  3. If the information is correct, send the .csr to a CA.

5. Get the certificate from the CA

The CA should send you a server certificate and certificate chain files.

6. Download and import the certificate files

After receiving the server certificate and certificate chain files from the CA, perform the following steps:

Download files

Download the archive file onto your desktop, unzip the archive into new folder, and create a wallet. You should see two files, as shown in the following image:

The file that starts with a2e is the main file, and the one that starts with gd is the intermediate file.

Open the main file and save the root (or main) certificate as a .crt file. Similarly, open the intermediate file and save it also as a .crt file. Upload all files to the server.

Create an Apache directory

Execute the following commands to create an ApacheĀ® directory. If an Apache directory already exists, backup the old Apache directory first.

cd $INST_TOP/certs/
mkdir Apache
Create a wallet directory

Execute the following command to create an empty wallet directory on the application node:

orapki wallet create -wallet /u01/app/TATII1/inst/apps/TATII1_nchlatiebsa01/certs/Apache -pwd WalletPasswd123 -auto_login

The preceding command creates the ewallet.p12 and cwallet.sso files inside the wallet folder (/u01/app/TATII1/inst/apps/TATII1_nchlatiebsa01/certs/Apache).

Copy certificates

Run the following commands to import the certificates, in the sequence: root, server, intermediate:

orapki wallet add -wallet /u01/app/TATII1/inst/apps/TATII1_nchlatiebsa01/certs/Apache -trusted_cert -cert  "/home/appti1/ITK1054693/root.crt" -pwd WalletPasswd123

orapki wallet add -wallet /u01/app/TATII1/inst/apps/TATII1_nchlatiebsa01/certs/Apache -trusted_cert -cert  "/home/appti1/ITK1054693/server.crt" -pwd WalletPasswd123

orapki wallet add -wallet /u01/app/TATII1/inst/apps/TATII1_nchlatiebsa01/certs/Apache -trusted_cert -cert  "/home/appti1/ITK1054693/intermediate.crt " -pwd WalletPasswd123
Create b64InternetCertificate.txt

Perform the following steps to add the contents of ca.crt to b64InternetCertificate.txt:

  1. Go to version 10.1.2 ORACLE_HOME/sysman/config/.

  2. Execute the following command:

     Cat root.crt >> b64InternetCertificate.txt
Copy the wallet to OPMN

Perform the following steps to copy the wallet to OPMN:

  1. Navigate to the $INST_TOP/certs/opmn directory.
  2. Create a new directory named BAK.
  3. Move ewallet.p12 and cwallet.sso from $INST_TOP/certs/Apache to BAK.
  4. Copy ewallet.p12 and cwallet.sso from BAK to $INST_TOP/certs/opmn.

The results should be similar to the following example:

[appti1@nchlatiebsa01 opmn]$ pwd
[appti1@nchlatiebsa01 opmn]$ ls -ltr
drwxrwxr-x 2 appti1 appti1 4096 Nov 17 05:34 BAK
-rw------- 1 appti1 appti1 3993 Nov 20 00:05 cwallet.sso
-rw------- 1 appti1 appti1 3965 Nov 20 00:05 ewallet.p12
[appti1@nchlatiebsa01 opmn]$
Update the cacerts file

Perform the following steps to update the JDK cacerts file:

  1. Navigate to $OA_JRE_TOP/lib/security.

  2. Back up the existing cacerts file.

  3. Copy root.crt and server.crt to this directory and issue the following command to ensure that cacerts has write permissions:

    $ chmod u+w cacerts
  4. Execute the following commands to add your Apache ca.crt and server.crt to cacerts:

    $ keytool -import -alias ApacheRootCA -file root.crt -trustcacerts -v -keystore cacerts
    $ keytool -import -alias ApacheServer -file server.crt -trustcacerts -v -keystore cacerts
  5. When prompted, enter the keystore password. The default password is changeit.

Update parameters

Make the following TLS-related parameter changes in the XML file:

If you are using end-to-end TLS, make the following changes:

7. Make configuration changes

Make the following changes to files:

(If the file is not present in the custom folder, then create a custom folder and copy the file.)

For FND_TOP>/admin/template/custom/opmn_xml_1013.tmp:

Replace this line in the template:

  <ssl enabled="true" wallet-file="%s_web_ssl_directory%/opmn"/>

With the following replacement line:

 <ssl enabled="true" openssl-certfile="%s_web_ssl_directory%/Apache/opmn.crt" openssl-keyfile="%s_web_ssl_directory%/Apache/server.key" openssl-password="dummy" openssl-lib="%s_weboh_oh%/lib" ssl-versions="TLSv1.0,TLSv1.1,TLSv1.2" ssl-ciphers="AES128-SHA,AES256-SHA"/>
For FND_TOP>/admin/template/custom/httpd_conf_1013.tmp:

Modify the following section:

<IfDefine SSL>
   LoadModule ossl_module libexec/

To the following:

 <IfDefine SSL>
    #LoadModule ossl_module libexec/
    LoadModule ssl_module libexec/
For FND_TOP>/admin/template/custom/ssl_conf_1013.tmp:

Comment out the following line in the template:

#SSLWallet file:%s_web_ssl_directory%/Apache

Add the following lines to the template:

SSLCertificateFile %s_web_ssl_directory%/Apache/server.crt
SSLCertificateKeyFile %s_web_ssl_directory%/Apache/server.key
SSLCertificateChainFile %s_web_ssl_directory%/Apache/intermediate.crt

Replace the following line:


With the following replacement line:


Replace the following line:

SSLProtocol    -all +TLSv1 +SSLv3

With the following replacement line:

SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3
For the following files:
  • <FND_TOP>/admin/template/custom/oc4j_properties_1013.tmp
  • <FND_TOP>/admin/template/custom/oafm_oc4j_properties_1013.tmp
  • <FND_TOP>/admin/template/custom/forms_oc4j_properties_1013.tmp

Copy the original files from <FND_TOP>/admin/template to <FND_TOP>/admin/template/custom, if the custom directory or any of the customized template files do not already exist.

Update these custom files by adding the following line:


8. Run AutoConfig

Run in the application tier $ADMIN_SCRIPTS_HOME directory.

9. Perform the final verification

Verify the URL, which should look like the following example:

SQL> select home_url from icx_parameters;


If you plan to use EBS and transmit important data, you must enable TLS with EBS to provide a secure way for the internet-based communication to happen between the server and client. This ensures that no one tampers with or hacks the data during communications.

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Brijesh Tiwari

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