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Components of the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Network


This post gives an overview of the components that are part of the OracleĀ® Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) network.

Introduction

An OCI network comprises the following components:

  • Virtual Cloud Network
  • Subnet
  • Virtual network interface card
  • Security Lists
  • Route tables
  • Route rules

Virtual Cloud Network

You need to create a Virtual Cloud Network (VCN) before you launch an instance to work in an OCI network. The VCN is like the traditional data center network and includes subnets, route tables, and gateways.

The VCN resides within a single region but can cross multiple availability domains (AD) that cover a single, contiguous IPv4 Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) block. When you delete a VCN, you should remove the attached gateways and make sure the subnets are empty.

VCNs automatically come with the following default components that you cannot delete:

  • Route table, with no rules
  • Security list, with default rules
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) options, with default values.

Each subnet you create has the following components associated with it:

  • One route table
  • One or more security lists
  • One set of DHCP options

If you do not specify the preceding components, the subnet automatically uses the default VCN components.

Subnet

A subnet is a subdivision of the VCN and can be either a specific or regional AD. Oracle recommends using regional subnets because they are more flexible.

You can have multiple subnets in an AD that use the same route table, security lists, and DHCP options. Subnets contain virtual network interface cards, which are attached to the instances. Each subnet has a contiguous range of IPs, and the IP ranges cannot overlap.

You can designate subnets as either of the following choices:

  • Private: Instances contain private IP addresses assigned to the VNICs.
  • Public: Instances have both private and public IP addresses assigned to the VNICs.

In the following diagram, the ADs each have one or more datacenters located within a region (local geographical area). The region is composed of three availability domains.

Source: https://docs.cloud.oracle.com/en-us/iaas/Content/Network/Tasks/managingVCNs.htm

Virtual network interface card

A virtual network interface card (VNIC) enables an instance to connect to a VCN and determines how the instance connects with endpoints inside and outside of a VCN.

The primary VNIC is attached to each instance during launch, and you cannot remove it. You can attach secondary VNICs and remove them from an existing instance that is in the same availability domain as the primary VNIC.

Security lists

Security lists are virtual firewall rules for the VCN and provide information about the following types of traffic:

  • Ingress: Incoming traffic
  • Egress: Outgoing traffic

There are two types of rules:

  • stateful: Uses connection tracking for any traffic that matches that rule
  • stateless: Does not use connection tracking for any traffic that matches that rule

The security rules are enforced at an instance level, even though they are associated at the subnet level.

Route tables

Use route tables to send traffic out of the VCN, which consists of route rules with the following elements:

  • Destination CIDR Routing
  • Targets for the traffic that matches that CIDR

Route rules

You don’t need route rules to enable traffic within the VCN itself.

Permissible target types for route rules include the following ones:

Dynamic routing gateway

A dynamic routing gateway routes private network traffic between your VCN and on-premises network by using either an IPSec VPN, FastConnect, or a peered VCN in another region.

Image Source: https://docs.cloud.oracle.com/en-us/iaas/Content/Network/Tasks/overviewIPsec.htm

Internet gateway

Use an Internet gateway for public subnets that access the Internet directly. The public subnet must have a route table and use a security list to control the traffic in and out of the resources. Internet gateways support connections initiated within VCN and from the Internet, such as from web servers.

Image source: https://docs.cloud.oracle.com/en-us/iaas/Content/Network/Tasks/managingIGs.htm

Network Address Translation gateway

Use a Network Address Translation (NAT) gateway for resources that have the following qualities:

  • Do not have public IP addresses
  • Need outbound access to the Internet
  • Cannot receive inbound connections initiated from the Internet

The public IP is automatically assigned to the NAT gateway, and you cannot choose or use the reserved public IP addresses. A database system that needs to download patches from the Internet might use a NAT gateway.

Image source: https://docs.cloud.oracle.com/en-us/iaas/Content/Network/Tasks/NATgateway.htm

Service gateway

Use a service gateway for subnets that need private access to Oracle services, such as an autonomous database.

Image source: https://docs.cloud.oracle.com/en-us/iaas/Content/Network/Tasks/servicegateway.htm

Local Peering gateway

The subnets that need private access to a peered VCN in the same region communicate by using private IP addresses. The two VCN’s in the peering network cannot have overlapping CIDRs.

Image source: https://docs.cloud.oracle.com/en-us/iaas/Content/Network/Tasks/localVCNpeering.htm

Conclusion

Set up your OCI network by creating the VCN, subnets, internet gateway, NAT gateway, service gateway with basic security list rules. In just a couple of guided steps the Virtual Networking QuickStart wizard console, you can quickly create the VCN and other components described in this post.

Conclusion

Learn more about Databases.

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post avatar
Rincy Antony

I am an applications DBA with more than 15 yrs of experience and currently work with Rackspace.

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