In my previous series of articles on OpenStack networking, I mentioned that there are ways of doing things in the virtual world that can’t be done in the physical world. Because of that, we shouldn’t let the physical server limitations control our thinking in the virtual world – but often we do.
When a physical server needs multiple public Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, we add these IPs onto one network interface controller (NIC) card because a limited number of NIC card slots are available in a chassis. These limitations do not exist in the virtual world, where you can add a virtual NIC card for each additional IP needed. The limitation for virtual servers isn’t physical slots – instead, it’s the number of available PCI bus addresses. This limitation occurs when a web server supports multiple domains, some of which have separate public IPs.
Each public IP is a floating IP address on the public cloud network. This floating IP must be mapped to an IP on the server so that traffic to the floating IP is directed to the server. The difference in the cloud is that the new IP can reside on a new NIC card as opposed to being added to an existing NIC card.
But this presents a newfound problem. Running separate NIC cards on the same subnet has been not recommended in the past, principally due to a lack of understanding of policy-based routing that was built into the kernel network stack over the last few years. Many people don’t know that by using policy-based routing, it is quite simple to configure multiple NIC cards on the same subnet.
The problem occurs in the following scenario:
As a result, the outgoing reply packet has an Ethernet-frame MAC address of the interface from which the packet exits (interface B), which causes a problem. The issue is that OpenStack port security causes this outgoing packet to be dropped as it comes out of the instance. OpenStack does not have a port using an IP/MAC address combination, and OpenStack does not allow a port to change either its MAC address or its IP address.
Policy-based routing provides additional options to decide how a packet may be routed. Decisions can be based on a number of parameters. The typical router makes routing decisions based on the IP destination address. In some cases, you may need to route packets to interfaces based on different criteria, depending not only on the destination addresses but also on other packet fields such as source address, IP protocol, transport protocol ports, or even packet payload. The kernel’s implementation of this type of routing is called Policy Routing.
In this application, we want to route packets based on the packet
to ensure that the packets go out of the interface (or NIC card) that uses the
from IP address. If we don’t do this, the system uses the interface
with the first entry in the routing main table. This first entry may or may not
be the interface on which the packet came in, which could cause the IP/MAC
address relationship to be incorrect.
By default, Linux uses a minimum of three separate routing tables, named main, default, and local (main id=254, default id=253, and local id=255). For packets going to external addresses, the kernel looks in the main routing table (id=254) and finds the first routing match to the desired subnet, and it uses only that first entry. As a result, all packets from the NIC card use that same routing entry from the main table (id=254). Since the Ethernet frame information is added by the outgoing interface, the MAC address of the packet is from the outgoing interface (rather than the incoming interface) and communication fails. This can be fixed only by using policy-based routing. To do this, we need to create separate tables for each NIC card on the subnet. These tables include a route and a rule for each IP or NIC card, which cause packets to be routed out of the correct interface.
Let’s consider how to configure a system to use policy-based routing by doing the following tasks:
In this case, let’s setup each interface to use static addresses rather than OpenStack’s DHCP-based addressing system.
For recent Debian-based systems, the directory
a file for each interface, so we just need to set the static IP and to add
four lines to the interface configuration file for policy-based routing. After
setting the static IP and network information in the file, add the following
details. Don’t forget to change the sections between angle brackets(
> ) to contain the appropriate information for the interface:
post-up ip route add <subnet CIDR> dev <interface name> src <assigned IP address> table <table name or number> post-up ip route add default via <subnet gateway> dev <interface name> table <table name or number> post-up ip rule add from <assigned IP address> table <table name or number> post-up ip route add <subnet CIDR> dev <interface name> src <assigned IP address>
Let’s illustrate with the following example. A new interface is to be set up on
10.20.0.0/24 network using this information:
device name - ens4 device IP - 10.20.0.4 subnet CIDR - 10.20.0.0/24 subnet gateway - 10.20.0.1 file name: /etc/network/interface.d/ens4.cfg
After we fill in the information,
auto ens4 iface ens4 inet static address 10.20.0.4 network 10.20.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 10.20.0.255 post-up ip route add 10.20.0.0/24 dev ens4 src 10.20.0.4 table 4 post-up ip route add default via 10.20.0.1 dev ens4 table 4 post-up ip rule add from 10.20.0.4 table 4 post-up ip route add 10.20.0.0/24 dev ens4 src 10.20.0.4
Routing tables can be identified by either a number or a name. Here we used
numbers, but to name them, use a unique table name followed by a unique number
/etc/iproute2/rt_tables file. To avoid editing the file, use numbers
for each table reference. It might be helpful to use the subnet part of the IP
address of the NIC card as the table number or for NIC cards. If you have
interfaces on different subnets, then add part of the base address to the table
number to ensure that the table number is unique. The Linux kernel can handle up
to 2**31 (2147483648) tables.
As you can see, it is quite easy to configure policy-based routing for these types of applications. Using separate NIC cards for each additional IP is a virtual-world alternative to assigning multiple IPs to a single NIC card.
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